5 criterii de clasificare a tipurilor de implanturi dentare



Implantul dentar reprezinta, probabil, cel mai mare progres realizat in stomatologie la inceputul secolului, fiind una dintre optiunile oferite in cazul in care pacientul si-a pierdut unul sau mai multi dinti. Se utilizeaza in stomatologie atat in scopuri estetice, cat si in scopuri functionale. Cu toate ca reprezinta o solutie pentru numerosi pacienti, cei mai multi stomatologi recomanda in primul rand salvarea dintilor naturali, in cazul in care se mai poate face acest lucru. Recomandat este ca pacientul sa mearga la un medic dentist bun in Bucuresti sau in orice alt oras din tara, care ii va spune daca implantul reprezinta cu adevarat o solutie si in cazul sau.

Tipuri de implanturi dentare
Tipuri de implanturi dentare

Criterii de clasificare a tipurilor de implant dentar

In prezent, medicii stomatologi pot asigura numeroase tipuri de implanturi dentare, in functie cu cazul clinic care necesita rezolvare. La baza clasificarii implanturilor dentare stau si urmatoarele criterii:

  • Modul de interactiune al implantului la locul inserarii;
  • Tipul materialelor care stau la baza executarii implantului;
  • Design;
  • Modul de fixare al implantului;
  • Rapiditatea inserarii si etapele chirurgicale implicate.

Tipuri de implanturi dentare

Potrivit criteriilor mentionate anterior se disting urmatoarele tipuri de implanturi:

1. Dupa modul de interactiune al implantului la locul inserarii:

  • Implanturi osteointegrative - osul comunica direct cu implantul;
  • Implanturi fibro integrate - implantul este fixat intr-o mica cantitate de tesut moale, fapt ce va face posibila revascularizarea.

2. Dupa tipul materialelor care stau la baza executarii implantului:

  • Materiale anorganice: metal, ceramica, carbon vitrificat;
  • Materiale organice: polimetacrilat de metal, os conservat sau liofilizat, hidroxil-apatita, burete de fibrina diferite tipuri de gelatine;
  • Materiale mixte: metal in combinatie cu nemetal.

3. In functie de design:

  • Implanturi dentare cu forma cilindrica - desi realizeaza o legatura nu foarte stabila cu osul, spre deosebire de implanturile in forma de surub, poate fi indicat in situatiile de creasta alveolara structurata cu os de densitate mare.
  • Implanturi dentare in forma de surub - garanteaza o suprafata mai mare de contact dintre implant si locul fixarii sale. Sunt cel mai frecvent utilizate;
  • Implanturi dentare conice - acest design asigura un raspuns foarte bun al osului in incarcarea protetica, armonizandu-se cu osul inconjurator. Este indicat in cazurile cu incarcare imediata.
  • Implanturi dentare trapezoidale - asigura rezultate optime in cazul osului a carei duritate este medie, insa poate fi indicat pentru toate tipurile de os;
  • Implanturi dentare plate (sub forma de lama) - mai rar utilizate.

4. Dupa modul de fixare al implantului:

  • Implanturi intraosoase tip radacina - este cea mai utilizata forma de implantare, deoarece este simplu de realizat si asigura rezultate foarte bune. Practic, procedura presupune insurubarea implantului dentar in os.
  • Implanturi subperiosoase - se insereaza subgingival, asadar, nu in os, ci direct pe creasta dentara resorbita.
  • Implanturi transosoase - azi, acest tip de implant dentar se utilizeaza foarte rar si implica o interventie chirurgicala complexa cu spitalizare. Se recomanda persoanelor la care nu este posibil de realizat un implant intraosos din cauza conformatiei si structurii osoase care nu permite acest lucru.
  • Implanturi intraosoase tip lama - rar utilizate in prezent. Procedura consta in fixarea unei lame subtiri din metal in os.

5. In functie de rapiditatea inserarii si etapele chirurgicale implicate

  • Implanturi dentare realizate intr-o singura etapa: se realizeaza rapid, fiind suficient de realizat o singura vizita la stomatolog. In acest caz protezarea nu este definitiva;
  • Implanturi dentare realizate in doua etape: in prima faza se insereaza implantul, iar dupa osteointegrare (4-6 luni) se poate atasa bontul protetic care va sustine coroana artificiala.

Toate aceste tipuri de implanturi pot da raspunsul si la intrebarea "Cat costa un implant dentar?" Bineinteles, pretul variaza de la un tip de implant la altul.

 

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